<BGSOUND SRC="http://www.graptolite.net/expextation.mid" LOOP=INFINITE>
Graptolite Net                      Graptolites & Graptoliters   
Ultrastructure, Taxonomy, and Affinities of Some Ordovician and Silurian Organic Microfossils
Piotr Mierzejewski
The work presents the results of morphological and ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) studies on Ordovician and Silurian organic fossils among which representatives of scyphozoans, hydrozoans, pogonophorans and pterobranchs are recognized. A few forms of uncertain systematic position are also described.
SCYPHOZOA: well preserved scyphothecae of Byronia robusta (Kozlowski) are described along with ultrastructural observations made on other Byronia species. Part of the so-called dithecoid graptolites (Dithecoidea) is recognized as colonial scyphoplyps.
HYDROZOA: forms described by R. Kozlowski and A. Eisenack as hydroids are revised. The astogenesis of Rhabdohydra tridens Kozlowski is reconstructed. Two new taxa are designated (Rhabdohydra multiplex sp.n., Rhabdohydridae fam.n.). The periderm ultrastructure of five species is described and interpreted. Some forms known as dithecoid graptolites, Chaunograptus and the Chaunograptidae are recognized as colonial hydropolyps.
POGONOPHORA: Beklemishevites grandis gen. et sp. n. is desribed. Tube ultrastructure is studied for two species revealing in one case the presence of a chitin-protein complex.
PTEROBRANCHIA: forms desrcibed by R. Kozlowski are revised and a new taxonomy is proposed for the Rhabdopleurida. Some forms classified previously as hydroids are identified as rhabdopleurids and four new taxa are designated (Kystodendron complicatus sp.n., Kystodendron tener sp.n., Rhabdopleuroididae fam.n., and Rhabdopleuritidae fam.n.). The astogenesis of Rhabdopleurites primaevus Kozlowski is reconstructed and new types of stolonal tubes (without zig-zag suture and fuselli) are described. The ultrastructure of cysts, stolons and stolonal tubes is studied in several forms. A congenerity of Rhabdopleurites with some forms described previously as tuboid (Tuboidea) or stoonoid (Stolonoidea) graptolites and hydroids is suggested.
MISCELLANEA: ultrastructure of five problematic microfossils are studied. A few new taxa are described including two new genera.

     Chemical methods
     Electron microscopy
Systematic part
Dithecoidea - primitive graptolites or colonial scyphopolyps?
Genus Byronia Matthew, 1899
Byronia naumovi Kozlowski, 1967
Byronia robusta (Kozlowski, 1967)
Byronia sp. A
       Some remarks on the Hydroida skeleton
          Family Rhabdohydridae Mierzejewski, 1986
Rhabdohydra Kozlowski, 1959
Rhabdohydra tridens Kozlowski, 1959
Rhabdohydra multiplex Mierzejewski, 1986
Rhabdohydra sp.
            Genus Palaeotuba Eisenack, 1934
Palaeotuba polycephala Eisenack, 1934
Family Chaunograptidae Bulman, 1955
Genus Chaunograptus Hall, 1882                   [related page  here ]
Chaunograptus flexuosus (Kozlowski, 1959) Mierzejewski, 1986
Chaunograptus adhaerens (Kozlowski, 1959) Mierzejewski, 1986
Chaunograptus sp.
Family Inocaulidae Rudemann, 1947
Genus Inocaulis Hall, 1852
Inocaulis sp.
         Incertae familiae
Calyxhydra Koz這wski, 1959
Flexihydra Koz這wski, 1959
Flexidydra undulata Koz這wski, 1959

Sokolovites Koz這wski, 1967
Sokolovites pogonophoroides Koz這wski, 1967  [related page here]
Genus Beklemishevites Mierzejewski, 1986
Beklemishevites grandis Mierzejewski, 1986

    The structure of the Rhabdopleurida coenecium
    Remarks on the systematics ot the Rhabdopleurida
Stolonoidea - graptolites or pterobranchs?
Family Rhadopleuroididae Mierzejewski, 1986
Genus Rhabdopleuroides Koz這wski, 1961
Rhadopleuroides expectatus Koz這wski, 1961
Rhabdopleuritidae Mierzejewski, 1986
Rhabdopleurites Koz這wski, 1967
Rhabdopleurites primaevus Koz這wski, 1967
Rhabdopleurites sp.
            Family Rhadopleuridae Harmer, 1905
Kystodendron Koz這wski, 1959
Kystodendron longicarpus (Eisenack, 1937), sensu Koz這wski, 1959
Kystodendron ex gr. longicarpus (Eisenack) sensu Koz這wski
Kystodendron subtilis (Koz這wski, 1959) Mierzejewski, 1986
   Kystodendron cf. subtilis (Koz這wski, 1959) Mierzejewski, 1986
Kystodendron aff. subtilis (Koz這wski, 1959)
Kystodendron complicatus Mierzejewski, 1986
Kystodendron tener Mierzejewski, 1986
Kystodendron sp. A
Kystodendron sp. B

Incertae sedis (Pterobranchia?)
Lagenohydra Koz這wski, 1959
Lagenohydra phragmata Koz這wski, 1959
                     Genus Ascosyrinx Kozlowski,  1967
       Ascosyrinx tenuis Kozlowski, 1967
Chitinodendron Eisenack, 1937
Chitinodendron bacciferum Eisenack, 1937
Diplohydra Kozlowski, 1959           [related page here]
Genus Eisenackisyrinx Mierzejewski, 1986
Eisenackisyrinx curvatus Mierzejewski, 1986
Kozlowskisyrinx Mierzejewski, 1986
Kozlowskisyrinx graptovermiformis Mierzejewski, 1986
Phragmohydra Kozlowski, 1959
Phragmohydra articulata Kozlowski, 1959
Xenohydra Kozlowski, 1959
Xenohydra labiata Kozlowski, 1959
Genus Xenotheka Eisenack, 1937
Xenotheka klinostoma Eisenack, 1937
                         Problematicum A
                         Problematicum B
                         Problematicum C
                         Problematicum D
Palaeontologia Polonica 47, 129-220.